Cu2ZnSnS(e)4 deposited using solution processes has potential for terrawatt-scale deployment. The champion highest efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 cell published in literature is spin-coated using the highly dangerous hydrazine which is an impractically scalable solvent and deposition combination.
As an alternative solvent amine-thiol mixtures have shown to complex with a wide range of binary chalcogenides with much lower health risks than hydrazine. Herein we present two further toxicity reductions, first by employing a less harmful amine-thiol pairing and second by using water as a diluting solvent. We exclude extraneous elements from the precursor solution such as halogens and with a sub-micron thickness crystalline absorber achieve an efficiency of 6.8%. With the modified solution deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, this solution process is scalable, abundant, and relatively non-toxic.
Wright, L.D., Lowe, J.C., Bliss, M., Tsai, V., Togay, M., Betts, T.R., Walls, J.M., Malkov, A.V. and Bowers, J.W., 2018. Water based spray pyrolysis of metal-oxide solutions for Cu2ZnSn (S, Se) 4 solar cells using low toxicity amine/thiol complexants. Thin Solid Films.
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