Short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) oligonucleotides can be grown on the surface of fused silica by automated nucleic acid synthesis. The immobilized ssDNA can be deposited at a desired average density. The density of ssDNA provides a controlled parameter that in combination with temperature, ionic strength and pH, can be used to define the selectivity of hybridization. Furthermore, the density of ssDNA can be used to control the affinity of complementary DNA so that it associates with the nucleic acids on the surface rather than areas that are not coated with ssDNA.
The characteristic melt temperature observed for immobilized double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) 20mer shifts by up to 10 °C when a single base pair mismatch is present in the center of a target oligonucleotide. Optimization of quantitative analysis of such single base pair mismatches requires use of select experimental conditions to maximize the formation of the fully matched target duplex while minimizing the formation of the mismatched duplex.
Results based on fiber optic biosensors that are used to study binding of fluorescein-labeled complementary DNA demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a selectivity coefficient of fully matched to single base pair mismatch of approximately 85–1, while maintaining >55% of the maximum possible signal that can be obtained from the fully matched target duplex.
Watterson, J.H., Piunno, P.A. and Krull, U.J., 2002. Towards the optimization of an optical DNA sensor: control of selectivity coefficients and relative surface affinities. Analytica Chimica Acta, 457(1), pp.29-38.
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Category: Photonics & Optoelectronics