Seed layer-assisted low temperature solution growth of 3D ZnO nanowall architecture for hybrid solar cells.
11 November 2017
Aligned metal oxide nanostructures carry electrons efficiently, and are therefore ideal building blocks for next-generation optoelectronic devices. Herein, we report the seed-layer-assisted low-temperature solution growth of aligned 3D ZnO nanowall architecture on arbitrary substrates. By introducing a controlled amount of Al into a seed-layer, the morphology of ZnO nanostructure is gradually changed from nanowire to 3D nanowalls.
Time-dependent growth experiments suggest that hydroxyl-ions present in growth solution react with Al to form Al(OH)4− which in turn binds to the positively charged Zn2 +surface and partially blocking ZnO growth along the (0001) direction and promoting lateral growth. Such aligned 3D ZnO nanowall architecture, with the unique combination of high surface-area and cage-like pores, grown on seed-layer coated transparent conductive substrate is found to be beneficial for electron transporting material (ETM) in perovskite solar cells and a maximum photocurrent density (JSC) of 7.5 mA.cm− 2 and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 2.4% are demonstrated.
Our facile approach readily allows further growth of ZnO nanowires on 3D ZnO nanowall surface; thereby improving the perovskite-ZnO interface and increasing the JSC and η to 9.7 and 3.3%, respectively. This 3D ZnO nanowall-nanowire architecture opens up a novel configuration for designing high-performance optoelectronic devices.
Islavath, N., Das, D., Joshi, S.V. and Ramasamy, E., 2017. Seed layer-assisted low temperature solution growth of 3D ZnO nanowall architecture for hybrid solar cells. Materials & Design, 116, pp.219-226.
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Category: Solar & Photovoltaics