Modern civilisation is now dependent on the large-scale use of a wide range of metals and most of these are naturally present only at trace levels in the biosphere and in biological material. The ability to analyse for trace elements is a pre-requisite for metal speciation studies. Many such studies are concerned with environmental samples including solid waste, waste water, drinking water, atmospheric particulates, particulates from emission sources, and also plant, food and animal tissue.
Kaya, S., Durrani, T.M., Greenfield, S. and Tyson, J.F., 1990. Preconcentration of refractory elements for inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In Metal Speciation in the Environment (pp. 241-252). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
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