NH4Cl Alternative to the CdCl 2 Treatment Step for CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells.

11 November 2015


The CdCl2 treatment is a key step in CdTe solar cell fabrication. However, despite its near ubiquitous use, the process is nonideal as CdCl2 is both expensive and potentially hazardous to utilize in processing. In this paper, we report on the development of a NH4Cl replacement to the CdCl2 process, which is a low-cost noncarcinogenic alternative.

Comparative cells were fabricated and compared via C -V, J-V, scanning electron microscopy, and external quantum efficiency analysis. Further process optimization led to device efficiencies of up to 11.5%, achieved using this new process, with VOC values of up to 832 mV, which is relatively high.


Major, J.D., Bowen, L., Treharne, R.E., Phillips, L.J. and Durose, K., 2015. NH Cl Alternative to the CdCl Treatment Step for CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 5(1), pp.386-389.

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Category: Solar & Photovoltaics

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