PbTiO3 (PTO), Pb(Mn0.1Ti0.9)O3 (PMTO), Pb(Sr0.1Ti0.9)O3 (PSTO), and Pb(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 (PZTO) were prepared on an indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass substrate by a sol-gel method. PTO, PMTO, PSTO, and PZTO films exhibited energy band gaps of 3.55 eV, 3.63 eV, 3.59 eV, and 3.66 eV, respectively.
All these films generated high photocurrents due to high shift currents, because carrier migration channels were successfully introduced by a lattice mismatch between the films and ITO substrates. The PMTO thin film exhibited the best ferroelectric and photovoltaic properties, with a photovoltage of 0.74 V, a photocurrent density of 70 μA/cm2, and a fill factor of 43.34%, which confirms that shift current and ferroelectric polarization are two main factors that affect the ferroelectric photovoltaic properties.
The PSTO, PZTO, and PTO thin films displayed space-charge-limited current (SCLC) when the electric field strength was below 10 kV/cm, and these three films broke down when the electric field strength was above 10 kV/cm. Analysis of the shift current mechanism confirmed that the breakdown of the PZTO and PSTO thin films resulted from Pool Frenkel emission current. The PMTO thin film displayed SCLC in the test range, which indicates that doping with Mn could inhibit defect formation in ferroelectric thin films.
Li, H., Zhu, J., Wu, Q., Zhuang, J., Guo, H., Ma, Z. and Ye, Y., 2017. Enhanced photovoltaic properties of PbTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films prepared by a sol-gel process. Ceramics International, 43(16), pp.13063-13068.
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