Analysis of heritage stone samples, alabaster, gypsum, limestone and marble, and model wall paintings was carried out with a laboratory, hybrid system based on the pulsed laser excitation of Raman, laser-induced fluorescence and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signals. The system is based on a nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at its second (532 nm), third (355 nm) and fourth (266 nm) harmonics and a spectrograph coupled to a time-gated intensified charge coupled device for spectral analysis allowing detection with temporal resolution.
For the stone samples, Raman spectra display the characteristic vibration modes of SO42− of calcium sulfate, in alabaster and gypsum, and of free CO32− of calcium carbonate, in limestone and marble. Simultaneously acquired laser-induced fluorescence spectra reveal characteristic bands that help to distinguish between heritage stone types. The elemental composition of stone samples is obtained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy upon excitation at 355 nm.
Spectra of all stone samples reveal their elemental composition that includes Ca, Na, Mn and Sr and the presence of molecular species, such as CN, C2 and CaO. Additional emission lines, ascribed to Mg, Si, Al and K, appear with different intensities according to the nature of the stone material. Model wall paintings, based on a red pigment, prepared as fresco or mixed with two different binders, were also studied. The complementary information provided by the three spectroscopic modes allows the identification of the pigment as red vermillion and of the different preparations based on the pigment alone or in mixtures with linseed oil and egg yolk binders.
Martínez-Hernández, A., Oujja, M., Sanz, M., Carrasco, E., Detalle, V. and Castillejo, M., 2018. Analysis of heritage stones and model wall paintings by pulsed laser excitation of Raman, laser-induced fluorescence and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signals with a hybrid system. Journal of Cultural Heritage.
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Category: Material & Chemical