With the ever-increasing focus on obtaining higher device power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) for organic photovoltaics (OPV), there is a need to ensure samples are measured accurately. Reproducible results are required to compare data across different research institutions and countries and translate these improvements to real-world production. In order to report accurate results, and additionally find the best-practice methodology for obtaining and reporting these, we show that careful analysis of large data sets can identify the best fabrication methodology.
We demonstrate which OPV outputs are most affected by different fabrication or measurement methods, and identify that masking effects can result in artificially-boosted PCEs by increasing fill factor and current densities, requiring care when selecting which mask to use. For example, our best performing devices (>6% efficiency) show that the smallest mask areas have not produced a surfeit of the highest performers, with only 11% of the top performing devices measured using a 0.032 cm2 mask area, while 44% used the largest mask (0.64 cm2).
This trend holds true for efficiencies going down to 5%, showing that effective fabrication conditions are reproducible with increasing mask areas, and can be translated to even larger device areas. Finally, we emphasise the necessity for reporting the best PCE along with the average value in order to implement changes in real-world production.
Rozanski, L.J., Smith, C.T., Gandhi, K.K., Beliatis, M.J., Dabera, G.D.M., Jayawardena, K.I., Adikaari, A.D.T., Kearney, M.J. and Silva, S.R.P., 2014. A critical look at organic photovoltaic fabrication methodology: Defining performance enhancement parameters relative to active area. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 130, pp.513-520.
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